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HOW SHALL WE 




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BY 



Benjamin J. Portugaloff, M. D. 



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THE 



Sanitation of the World 



BY 



BENJAMIN 7- PORTUGALOFF, I) 



(Translated from the Russian.) 



Cki go, 
World's Columbian J n, 



1893. 



How shall we make our homes health?? 









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Whenever an epidemic disease gets hold, within a short 
■ ace of time, of the whole of our globe, from Baku to Paris, from 
uleu to Peking, it is, in first instance, a proof that Mercury, Mars, 
\ i us and Bacchus have done their utmost to infect the beau- 
nl Earth. At times only Prometheus succeeds in clearing with 
hi dutary fire the filth that has been heaped by man, and thu 
plague then leaves the field. We do not know how many in- 
habitants there were on the face of the globe when the Gods re- 

! on < Hympus, but as regards the present century we know 

that in 1810 the entire population of the world numbered 

682,000,000 ami towud 1890 their number increased 2 l A times, 

im in- now to J.;(>2,ooo,000. Pretty crowded it gets, and there 

have somewhere accumulated piles of irbage and all kind of 

dirt -ind mud. 

\ few centuries ago a huge desert was stretching where now 

i in Russ: and now a smell as if of myriads of pinched bed bugs 

spread all over European Russia. Then again the movement 

►op tlation is not the same as before. When after the discovery 

1 America by Columbus Magellan undertook his journey around 

t 'it world, he omph :dit with incredible heroism and efforts and 

, at in it over 3 years. Now you start from Liverpool on 

luxurious steamer and make the trip with the highest comfort in 

64 da] Exactl) with the same speed the whole globe can be 

rune by an) epidemics, for th< soil is everywhere prepared 

for the infection, fattened by garbage heaped for centuries and by 
the dirtiness of all living mankind. Still it wa not always so. 
At the dawn oi history mankind thronged along the banks of Nile 



- 4 

and Egypt was the first to work out some ideas of cleanliness and 
notions of hygiene, which were borrowed from them by other 
peoples. But Egypt was saved from accumulation of filth by Nile. 
The inhabitants heaped mountains of refuse and thresh, but the 
river flooding the banks cleaned off the country. In another part 
of the old continent, in the city of Nineveh, whose very memory 
was centuries ago lost by history, the water supply was very 
intelligently cared for; every chamber of the King's palace was 
connected by pipes with the central reservoir and water was 
everywhere in abundance. The celebrated sewer and acqueducts 
constructed in Rome by Tarquinius,, have remained till the pre- 
sent day. notwithstanding allthe vicissitudes of twenty five cen- 
turies' history, the reatest work of public sanitation bequeathed 
to us by the ancient world. Five centuries B. C. sanitary 
officers, ?edi! , were elected to take charge of fhe cleaning of 
ever town. The first triumvirs constructed aqueducts, baths, 
gymnasiums, cared for the cleanliness of the streets and appointed 
medical officers. Their sanitary institutions are model even from 
a mod rn point of view. Toward the epoch of the last caesars, 
b< er all mitary institutions fell into a state of decay. The 
m€ liaeval period from Atilla till Columbus was an epoch of as- 
ceticism, - wall as of accumulation of ordures. 

Leprosy brok« out first abo t the IV century and during the 
en le^ took lormous dimensions; Leprpsories, hospitals for the 
lepei wen tablish ring the XII century all over Europe, 

The pie were overcome with superstitious fear, which kept 
the m approaching the unfortunate. Many places were over- 

i elmed by din \\h h nee ssitated a series of sanitary fegula- 

The British Islands were in special n< ■ '1 of relief. In the 
(III century stringent r< ulati< regarding c anliness were en- 
act* oul mea wen i n to improve the condition ol 
slai ht< nd public ind communal r id- so dirty was 
the Tl m at th time th; it be* m< m to put a stop lo 
that LI. kiter the cl<> >i th. monasteries hundreds <>i pau 
pers and a ipl iwn i i eets; sev< Laws wer 
ict tl The filthy d is ol i unfortunate] oi 
wretch cai i h> irth i pi oi 16 , which carried 
a r i ;o,ooo hum ein. m London alone. Bu enly 
ap| ared Pron 11 ai aterribl* firedi >tr dthre* 









irth i the city and by this a.r method disinfection 

the capital \ d from the pla -ie. A lin all \s forgotten. 

practio I iping ordur was r Now a help- 



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— 6 

the cholera being brought to Syria or Egypt by the caravans 
crossing the vast prairies and deserts. In this fact we find a sug- 
gestion as to the most efficient weapons in our struggle against 
the epidemics. Damp and marshy grounds must be drained and 
cleanliness must be maintaned by all means. This is more essential 
than all the quarantines and other artificial measures, which result 
in nothing but an Immense amount of bureaucratic red tape. Last 
year the attention of the whole world was called by the ravages of 
the cholera in Hamburg. There is an excellent system of drainage 



in Hamburg, by which all the ordures of a half million population 
are promptly carried away into the mouths of the Elbe, near by 
the sea. There is a fair aqueduct, furnishing the whole city with 
drinking water taken from the same river, quite a distance up the 
place where the refuse is let out into the river. 

Whence then did the cholera come? Everything is all right 
during the low ebb: all the refuse has been carried away into 
the sea, but with the high tide the sea returns to the city all that 
it has received, and right to the place where the aqueduct takes 
the water from. Thus the Hamburgers drink their own excreta 
We should wonder if there were no cholera there. 

The same is the case with the Thames. Owing to the accu- 
mulation of ordures, to the dirtiness of the soil and rivers, all the 
parts of the world are well provided with their own infectious 
maladies and are all the time treating one another: Europe — with 
typhus, Asia — with cholera, Africa — with malaria, America — 
with yellow fever. But Europe is the hardest up, as its population 
is effeminated by civilization, while the filth remains the same 
as in the olden times. 

The civilized life of the Europeans has become too complex 
for the primitive systems of drainage, it stands in need of sanitary 
improvements of a higher quality. Whoever has visited the large 
European centres, Paris, Vienna, Berlin, not to speak of the prim 
itively dirty Moscow, and has taken the trouble to go farther 
than the fashionable parts of the city, will testify to the dreadful 
dirty condition of the so called slums. Drainage alone is power- 
less here. Moreover, the drains system is apt to carry away 
no more then 10 per cent of all the garbage: all slab, kitchen mat- 
ter, street dung etc., in a word 20 per cent of the refuse is carried 
out of the city by horses. Still this is far from being a thorough 



* 



c! ming; th< greater part of the refuse rots on the ground, infect 
il or dri and -.preads in the air as dust and is then breathe* 
by the inhabitants of fhe city. Then com< the ch< a to i nin 
rl, hum i n man of the neC' keeping his habitations clean. 

holera 1 thus bee the most p erful a t of unitary 

progr Hut amh t the h h achievement i an civili- 

n chol i hamt to man. 

But the day wring i i man will shake off the < 

ful yol rdur< 1 clean hii and ever hin Mir ndin 

In I id ha t tli ' r n ] > 1 I he E* h hav 

pi ■ I w ii i i efi :1th. 1 1. rmer da) 

In i in. in: I their field I m d 

hi' i nt U | v 1 1 >■ d moi it id fruitful . th 

I i or r e u s I a n cl i t I < i 

1 1 t h e i 



I brii forth i u 1 






I in ■ i d and >nst i i p liai ystem 

ll d( til I r III 111(1 1 1, 

i nil' | id r ii ii) I 111 in i I pi 

►Hi 111 ind I r I ;i 

li bui i in < >p n it k 

It . ii burn up ii -i i in <l II liqi 

I' n ii dl I 

i ! ii in ii ' and all I I 

In vns I love burr meal 

t, if tli « m» t tin n< rt 4 • I 

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— 8 — 

to from £ 300 to £ 1,500, according to its size. It burns from 24 to 
35 tons a week and the expense amounts to 1 s. per ton. Very lit- 
tle service is required: one workman can attend to several stoves 
in the same building. Moreover the expense is made up by the 
income derived from it. The ashes make a good manure. 

At the same time the ceil generates an enormous power acting 
as a motor in aqueducts, elevators and electrical machines. In 
Southampton the burner provides with power 250 electrical 
machines. It is clear that the burner is the best guard of 
public health. It crushes all germs of infectious disease, and 1 

prevents the heaping of slab and the dirtying of the soil. 

Why then not make use of this beneficent appliance ? We 
might say, modifying the words of Henry IV, that the welfare 
of our race will be secured not only then when even' peasant will 
be provided with chicken, but when every hamlet will have such 
a stove for the burning of refuse. But the burning of refuse is well- 



nigh impossible without separating solid matter from water. For 
this purpose all modern systems of drainage are provided with 
filters, basins, etc., but all these devices do not serve the purpose. 
The best and the cheapest is the mechanical method. The Nadiein 
system apparatus, awarded a medal at the World's Columbian 
Exposition (see Appendix), enables to attain this end even where 
the water closet system prevails. Then the solid refuse and fecal 
matters can be burned. 

To conclude with, let us say that an ideal state we are aspi- 
ring to is that which strives to do away with epidemics at all. 
Their prevalence is a sign of a low state of culture and public 
health. When cholera paid her first visit to England in 1831, 
it carried away 52,000 victims. In 1866, it struck only 18,000, 
while on the continent it killed a full million. These results 
were due to the improved stat of public sanitation in England. 
Our globe needs cleaning, and sanitation. In Prometheus, the 
incarnation of fire, we shall find the best and surest agent for 
this end But we can not acquiesce in it, we must go ahead and 
invent ever new and better and wider-reachinj improvements 
Civilization and her two smart daughters, Science and Hygiene, 
willguide us along the infallible ways Leading to the achievement 
of these ends. 



• 



For information concerning the purchase of the Patent please apply 



9 




noi^isocixg nciqnmioo *,PH<>A1 am jo *Xd3<I XVISSHH ®i^ JO »oi 






December, 1803, to V. SVIATLOVSKY, M. D. 




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